Cotswold District Council - Manchester City Council
for pubs in Avon ? Try Gloucestershire
Former Metropolitan county of southwest England, formed in 1974
from the city and county of Bristol and parts of northeast Somerset and southwest
Gloucestershire. It was abolished in 1996 when the unitary authorities of Bristol, Bath
and North East Somerset, North Somerset, and South Gloucestershire were created. Avon
covered an area of just over 500 square miles. The cities of Bristol and Bath, along with
the town of Weston-super-Mare, provided the county's administration centres. The main
feature of Avon was the river of the same name, known as the Bristol Avon in due respect
to the other rivers with that same name in England. Products from the county include
aircraft and other engineering products, tobacco, chemicals, printing and dairy products.
One famous, adopted, son of Avon was the Navigator John Cabot who, along with his son
Sebastian, discovered the islands of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia and opened up new trade
routes for England in the 15th and 16th Centuries.
Black Country Looking
for pubs in the Black Country ? Try Staffordshire
Central area of England, to the west and north of Birmingham,
incorporating the towns of Dudley, Walsall, Wolverhampton, and Sandwell. Heavily
industrialized, it gained its name in the 19th century from its belching chimneys and
mining spoil. Anti-pollution laws and the decline of heavy industry have changed the
region's landscape. Coalmining in the area ceased in 1968.
The Black Country Museum was opened in 1975 at Dudley to preserve the region's industrial
heritage. The area evolved with a dialect and culture distinct from that of nearby
There is still some quarrying in the region, and engineering, metal-processing, and the
manufacture of motor accessories are important. The Black Country is contained within the
Metropolitan County of the West Midlands.
Former Metropolitan county of northeast England, formed in 1974 from parts of Durham and
northeast Yorkshire. It was abolished in 1996 when the unitary authorities of Hartlepool,
Middlesborough, Redcar and Cleveland, and Stockton-on-Tees were created. Covering just 224
square miles, the administrative headquarters for the county were to be found in the town
of Middlesborough with other major towns being Stockton on Tees, Billingham and
Hartlepool. The county was dominated by the river Tees and the North Sea. The county
boasted Europe's largest steel complex (at Redcar) and chemical site, which relied on the
locally available potash and gas. Unsurprisingly the most commercial of activities in
Cleveland were steel working and chemical production.
Area named after a range of limestone hills in Gloucestershire, South Gloucestershire, and
Bath and North East Somerset, England, 80 km / 50 miles long, between Bath and Chipping
Camden. The Cotswold Hills rise to 333 m / 1,086 ft at Cleeve Cloud, near Cheltenham, but
average about 200 m / 600 ft. The area is known for its picturesque villages, built with
the local honey-coloured stone.
The Cotswolds is an area internationally-renowned for its natural beauty and for its distinctive, golden coloured, limestone buildings which together form the characteristic landscape of villages and small towns sheltering in rolling hills and shallow vales.
Millions of tourists from all over the world visit the area every year, many drawn by the history of the district. Cirencester was the capital of Roman
Britain and the roads that were laid there, radiating from the town, still form the basis for the major routes of the area. The famous Fosseway (A 429), stretches almost the length of the district. The prosperity of the Cotswolds was further established by the
wool trade, resulting in the growth of market towns such as Chipping Campden, Tetbury, Bourton-on-the-Water, Stow-on-the-Wold, and Moreton-in-Marsh, which still retain their busy atmosphere. The heritage of the district is reflected in its buildings, of which nearly 5000 are designated as listed buildings by the Department of Environment either
for their nationally important architecture or historic interest. This is the highest concentration of buildings of this importance within any English rural authority. There are also many conservation areas within the district giving special protection to parts of many of the older towns and villages.
Old tracks and evidence of early British forts and Roman camps indicate that the area was
important in ancient times. It prospered in the 14th and 16th centuries when the woollen
industry of Flemish weavers flourished. The decline of the area's wool industry was
primarily triggered by the industrialization of the 1830s, which led to labour disputes,
fluctuating markets, strikes, failing machinery, and mill closures.
Great parish churches, imposing houses, and solidly built inns are evidence of the wealth
of the area in the Middle Ages. Chipping Campden, Northleach, and Cirencester contain fine
examples of wool churches, built on the prosperity of the medieval wool trade and heavily
adorned with gargoyles and story pictures.
The River Thames rises on the eastern slopes the hills, 5 km / 3 miles southwest of
Cirencester. The Cotswold Way is a long-distance path which runs along the top of the
ridge, stretching about 160 km / 100 mles from Chipping Campden to Bath.
Former Metropolitan county of NE England, created in 1974 out of N Lincolnshire and parts
of the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire. It was abolished 1996 when the unitary
authorities of East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull, North East Lincolnshire, and
North Lincolnshire were
created. It covered over 1,300 square miles and with a population of 860,000, was centred
on the Humber estuary.
Humberside's administrative headquarters were located at Kingston upon Hull with it's
other major towns being those of Grimsby (named after the Viking who founded the town),
Scunthorpe, Goole and Cleethorpes. The river Humber dominated the county with the
industries of petrochemical production, oil refining and fish processing all directly
profiting from it. As with many other eastern English counties Humberside also relied on
root crops, cereals and cattle farming. Famous people who were born within he boundaries
of Humberside were Amy Johnson, the aviator, and John Wesley the founder of the Wesleyan
Isle of Man
This island in the Irish Sea is not actually part of the United Kingdom but is, legally, a
dependency of the British crown. Occupying 220 square miles the island is surrounded to
the north by Scotland, to the east by England, to the south by Wales and to the west by
The island has a governmental body of it's own in the Tynwald which passes laws subject
to royal consent. The island produces it's own coins and notes in UK currency
denominations. It has a population of 65,000 and the original language of Manx (Which was
closer to Scottish than Irish Gaelic) has been virtually extinct since the 1970's with
English becoming the dominant language. The Isle of Man was a Norwegian territory until
1266 when it was ceded to Scotland. It came under British administration in 1765. The
island's capital is Douglas, with other major towns being Ramsey, Peel and Castletown.
county formed in 1974 and encompasses all of the area previously considered to be
Middlesex. Middlesex itself gained it's name from 'The kingdom of the Middle Saxons'.
Greater London consists of the City of London and 32 Boroughs. The boroughs are Barking
and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich,
Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington,
Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Newham,
Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest and
Wandsworth. With a size of 610 square miles and a population of some 7 Million London is
the most densely populated of all British counties.
The metropolitan county was established in 1965 and was governed by the Greater London
Council until it's abolition in 1986. Greater London has become, over the centuries, a
culturally enriched centre of Great Britain, both from within the nation and from without
and is a perennial favourite for tourists from all over the world.
Greater Manchester Looking for pubs in Greater Manchester ? Try Lancashire or Cheshire
Metropolitan County formed in 1974 from parts of Lancashire and Cheshire but, as the name
obviously suggests, based around the city of Manchester. Apart from Manchester the area
covers the old Lancashire towns of Oldham, Bolton, Wigan, Rochdale, the city of Salford
and the former Cheshire town of Stockport. Greater Manchester covers 500 square miles and
has a population of 2,580,000.
In recent years the city has become synonymous with the football clubs of Manchester
City and, especially, Manchester United. The origins of the area owe a lot to the opening
of the Bridgewater canal in the 1800's which brought the regional industries of coal and
in particular cotton a ready outlet to markets up and down the country and, with the
opening of the Manchester Ship Canal to markets worldwide. Famous sons and daughters from
the region include the singer Gracie Fields (from Rochdale), Emmeline Pankhurst (the
leader of the Suffragette movement in the early part of the 20th Century) and Anthony
Burgess (less glamourously a member of a Soviet spy ring in the 1950's and 60's). In
common with it's traditions the area is highly industrialised although the times 'when
cotton was King' are now long gone.
Merseyside Looking for pubs in Liverpool ? Try Lancashire or Cheshire
Industrial area around Liverpool, Northwest England based on the
River Mersey, created by the government in 1974 from an area of Lancashire around the city
of Liverpool and northern parts of Cheshire. The county covers an area of some 252 square
miles with a population of just over 1.5 Million.
Liverpool stands as the pinnacle city of the county. Famous throughout the world for
its endeavours in the spheres of trade, sport and entertainment. Liverpool is separated
from the town of Birkenhead by the River Mersey itself, as praised by the emotive tune
'ferry across the Mersey'. Liverpool is proud to be one of the few cities in the world
that can boast two cathedrals. One being of traditional design the other, the roman
catholic cathedral, being of post-war modern design. Its history is one of unity from
adversity. The high percentage of Liverpudlians with an Irish ancestry giving testament to
the influx of Lancashire's near neighbours in the 19th century.
Liverpool's original claim to fame came from the sea. The Mersey docks were always
important to Britain, and to northern England especially, but were even more so in the
1939-45 war when the nation's lifeline to America and Canada was at it's most important.
In recent decades Liverpool has become synonymous with two of the nation's favourite
activities, music and association football.
There can be very few, if any, who have not heard of the Beatles or the 'Mersey beat' that
brought life to a socially changing Britain in the nineteen sixties. There are surely
equally as few that have not become enamoured by, or envious of, the success of the city's
Liverpool football club who dominated English and, for a time, European football in the
late seventies through to the late eighties.
Liverpool apart, Merseyside has some other very fine towns with which to enchant the
visitor. The Wirral, to the south of the county, is a haven for bird watchers and nature
lovers alike. St Helens has a long industrial past: glass-making here dates back more than
200 years, and coal has been mined since the 16th century; in 1757 the Sankey Canal was
constructed to carry coal to Liverpool, Warrington, and also Northwich for the then
growing salt industry. The chemical and copper industries left large areas of derelict
land in St Helens, which have now cleared. Knowsley originally grew up around Knowsley
Hall, the home of the Stanley family (Earls of Derby) since 1835.
for pubs in Middlesex ? Try London
Former English county, absorbed by Greater London 1965. It was settled in the 6th century
by Saxons, and its name comes from its position between the kingdoms of the East and West
Saxons. Contained within the Thames basin, it provided good agricultural land before it
was built over.
The name is still used, as in Middlesex County Cricket Club.
The Potteries Looking for
pubs in the Potteries ? Try Staffordshire
Home of the china and earthenware industries, in central England.
Wedgwood and Minton are factory names associated with the Potteries.
The Potteries lie in the upper Trent basin of N Staffordshire, covering the area around
Stoke-on-Trent, and include the formerly separate towns of Burslem, Hanley, Longton,
Fenton, and Tunstall.
Bottle Kilns are still a common sight around the Potteries and some are still used
although many have been incorporated into other buildings.
Superbly picturesque woodland glen between lochs Katrine and Achray in
Stirling unitary authority, Scotland, 3 km / 2 miles long. Overlooking it are Ben Venue
(727 m / 2,386 ft) and Ben A'an (369 m / 1,211 ft), a popular climbing venue, which rests
against Meall Gainmheich (564 m / 1,851 ft). Featured in the novels of Walter Scott, it
has become a favoured tourist spot.
Industrial conurbation in Tyne and Wear, Northeast England, on the River
Tyne. North Tyneside and South Tyneside are metropolitan boroughs of Tyne and Wear. The
area extends from South Shields to Newcastle upon Tyne and is characterized by heavy
industry such as shipbuilding and repairing, and fish canneries.
The kingdom of the West Saxons in Britain, said to have been founded by Cerdic about AD
500, covering present-day Hampshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Somerset, and Devon. In
829 Egbert established West Saxon supremacy over all England.
Thomas Hardy used the term Wessex in his novels for the SW counties of England; drawing on
England's west country, the heartland was Dorset but its outlying boundary markers were
Plymouth, Bath, Oxford, and Southampton. He gave fictional names to such real places as
Dorchester (Casterbridge), Salisbury (Melchester) and Bournmouth (Sandbourne) but mixed
these with a sprinkling of real names such as Stonehenge, the river Frome, and Nettlecombe
West Midlands Looking
for pubs in the West Midlands ? Try Staffordshire
Metropolitan county formed in 1974 and centred around England's second largest city of
Birmingham. The county covers an area of 347 square miles and is home to 2,650,000 people.
The administrative centre is, Birmingham with the towns of Wolverhampton, Walsall, Dudley,
Coventry, Smethwick and West Bromwich being the other major population centres.
The county was formed from parts of Staffordshire,
Warwickshire and Worcestershire
The county is heavily industrialised with the manufacture of all kinds of
engineering and mechanical goods such as motor vehicles and machine tools the paramount
trade. Birmingham can lay claim to be the home of the birth of Lawn Tennis. Today the
National Exhibition Centre is the centrepiece of a modern, thriving city and county.