William Boog Leishman, Scottish army physician who discovered the protozoan parasite that
causes the group of diseases now known as leishmaniasis. He was Knighted in 1909. Leishman
discovered the protozoan parasite that causes kala-azar in 1900, using a technique now
called Leishman's stain, to examine cells from the spleen of a soldier who had died of
Jarrow Town in Tyne and Wear, northeast England, on the south bank of the River Tyne. The
shipbuilding industry was established by the Palmer brothers, and iron works were founded
alongside the shipyards. The world's first oil tanker was produced here and some 900 ships
were launched from Jarrow prior to 1933.
Hubert Cecil Booth, English inventor of the vacuum cleaner. A mechanic and engineer by
trade, he patented an electric machine in 1901 that went into production the following
William Maddock Bayliss, English physiologist who discovered the digestive hormone
secretin, the first hormone to be found, with Ernest Starling. During World War I, Bayliss
introduced the use of saline (salt water) injections to help the injured recover from
shock. He was Knighted in 1922.
(John) Ambrose Fleming, English electrical physicist and engineer who invented the
thermionic valve in 1904 and devised Fleming's rules. He was Knighted in 1929.
Frederick Frost Blackman, English botanist after whom the Blackman reactions of
photosynthesis are named.
Ernest Henry Starling, English physiologist who, with William Bayliss, discovered secretin
and in 1905 coined the word `hormone┤. He formulated Starling's law, which states that
the force of the heart's contraction is a function of the length of the muscle fibres. He
is considered one of the founders of endocrinology.
James Mackenzie, Scottish physician and cardiologist who was a pioneer of modern cardiac
medicine. He was first to identify a large number of irregularities in the heart's beat
and establish which were caused by serious disease and which were of no consequence.
Arthur Lapworth, British chemist, one of the founders of modern physical-organic
chemistry. He formulated the electronic theory of organic reactions (independently of
Francis William Aston, English physicist who developed the mass spectrometer, which
separates isotopes by projecting their ions (charged atoms) through a magnetic field. For
his contribution to analytic chemistry and the study of atomic theory he was awarded the
1922 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
The first purpose-designed aircraft carrier was the British HMS Hermes.
Stainless Steel - alloy of iron, chromium, and nickel that resists rusting. Used for
cutlery, kitchen fittings and in surgical instruments, Stainless steel was first produced
in the UK in 1913.
The first crossword was devised by Arthur Wynne of Liverpool, England.
William Henry Bragg, English physicist. In 1915 he shared with his son Lawrence Bragg the
Nobel Prize for Physics for their research work on X-rays and crystals. He constructed the
first X-ray spectrometer 1913.
Arthur Holmes, English geologist who helped develop interest in the theory of continental
drift. He also pioneered the use of radioactive decay methods for rock dating, giving the
first reliable estimate of the age of the Earth.
Short - British aircraft manufacturers. The Type 184 seaplane was the first aircraft to
carry a torpedo and, during the World War I Gallipoli campaign, was the first aircraft to
sink an enemy ship with a torpedo.
Frederick Handley Page, English aeronautical engineer who designed the first large bomber.
His company produced a series of military aircraft, including the Halifax bomber in World
War II. In 1930, Handley Page produced the first 40-seat airliner, the Hercules, a
four-engined plane. He was Knighted in 1942.
The 'Tank' - The first effective tracked and armoured fighting vehicle, invented by the
British soldier and scholar Ernest Swinton, and first used in the Battle of the Somme
The first nonstop transatlantic round trip flight was completed by a rigid airship, the
John William Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown made the first nonstop transatlantic flight,
from Newfoundland to Ireland aboard a Vickers Vimy.
The first car-towed caravan was made by Eccles Motor Transport.
John James Rickard Macleod, Scottish physiologist who shared the Nobel Prize for
Physiology or Medicine with Frederick Banting in 1923 for their part in the discovery of
insulin, the hormone in the pancreas that reduces blood glucose (sugar) levels. Since its
discovery, insulin has been used extensively as the main treatment for diabetes.
Frank Watson Dyson, English astronomer. He was especially interested in stellar motion and
time determination. He was one of a number of astronomers who confirmed the observations
of Jacobus Kapteyn on the proper motions of stars, which indicated that the stars in our
Galaxy seemed to be moving in two great streams. These results were later realized to be
the first evidence for the rotation of our Galaxy. He initiated the public broadcasting of
time signals by the British Broadcasting Corporation over the radio in 1924.
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, (Baron Blackett) British physicist. He was awarded a
Nobel prize 1948 for work in cosmic radiation and his perfection of the cloud chamber, an
apparatus for tracking ionized particles, with which he confirmed the existence of
positrons. In 1924, working under physicist Ernest Rutherford at Cambridge, Blackett made
the first photograph of an atomic transmutation, which was of nitrogen into an oxygen
isotope. He continued to develop the cloud chamber and 1932 designed one where photographs
of cosmic rays were taken automatically. Later he discovered particles with a lifespan of
10-10 sec, which became known as strange particles.
John Logie Baird, Scottish electrical engineer who pioneered television. In 1925 he gave
the first public demonstration of television, transmitting an image of a recognizable
human face. The following year, he gave the world's first demonstration of true television
before an audience of about 50 scientists at the Royal Institution, London. In 1929 The
BBC began broadcasting experimental TV programmes, using Baird's system.
Edward Victor Appleton, British physicist. He worked at Cambridge under Ernest Rutherford
from 1920. He proved the existence of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer (now called the E
layer) in the atmosphere, and the Appleton layer beyond it, which Appleton measured at
about 230 km/145 miles above the Earth's surface (the first distance measurement made by
means of radio). He was involved in the initial work on the atom bomb and won the Nobel
Prize in 1947.
Osbert Guy Stanhope Crawford, British archaeologist. He introduced aerial survey as a
means of finding and interpreting remains, an idea conceived during World War I. A leading
field archaeologist, he was the first archaeology officer of the Ordnance Survey 1920-46.
John Logie Baird demonstrated colour TV.
Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist who
discovered the first antibiotic drug, penicillin, in 1928. In 1922 he had discovered
lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme present in saliva, nasal secretions, and tears. While
studying this, he found an unusual mould growing on a neglected culture dish, which he
isolated and grew into a pure culture; this led to his discovery of penicillin.
Frank Whittle, British engineer. He patented the basic
design for the turbojet engine in 1930. He had the idea for a jet engine 1928 but could
not persuade the Air Ministry of its potential until 1935. He was knighted in 1948.
John Douglas Cockcroft, British physicist. He and Irish physicist Ernest Thomas Sinton
Walton succeeded in splitting the nucleus of an atom for the first time. For this they
were jointly awarded a Nobel prize 1951. Walton and Cockcroft built the first successful
(Walter) Norman Haworth, English organic chemist who was the first to synthesize a vitamin
(ascorbic acid, vitamin C) in 1933, for which he shared a Nobel prize 1937. He made
significant advances in determining the structures of many carbohydrates, particularly
sugars. He was Knighted in 1947.
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, Scottish physicist who developed a forerunner of radar. He
proposed in 1935 a method of radiolocation of aircraft - a key factor in the Allied
victory over German aircraft in World War II. He was Knighted in 1942.
Alan Mathison Turing, English mathematician and logician. In 1936 he described a
`universal computing machine┤ that could theoretically be programmed to solve any problem
capable of solution by a specially designed machine. This concept, now called the Turing
machine, foreshadowed the digital computer. Turing was the first to suggest the
possibility of machine learning and artificial intelligence.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) debuts the world's first television service
from Alexandra Palace with three hours of programming a day.
Lionel Sharples Penrose, English physician and geneticist who carried out pioneering work
on mental retardation and Down's syndrome. He was the first to demonstrate the
significance of the mother's age.
The British steam locomotive Mallard set a steam-rail speed record of 203 kph/126 mph.
James Stanley Hey, English physicist whose work in radar led to pioneering research in
radioastronomy. He discovered that large sunspots were powerful ultra-shortwave radio
transmitters, and pinpointed a radio source in the Milky Way.
Barnes Neville Wallis, British aeronautical engineer who designed the airship R-100, and
during World War II invented the `bouncing bombs┤ used by the Royal Air Force Dambusters
Squadron to destroy the German M÷hne and Eder dams in 1943. He also assisted in the
development of the Concorde supersonic airliner and developed the swing wing aircraft. He
was Knighted in 1968.
Andrew Fielding Huxley, English physiologist, awarded the Nobel prize in 1963 with Alan
Hodgkin for work on nerve impulses, discovering how ionic mechanisms are used in nerves to
transmit impulses. He was Knighted in 1974. Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, British physiologist, He
devised techniques for measuring electric currents flowing across a cell membrane. Hodgkin
and Huxley managed for the first time to record electrical changes across the cell
J(ohn) Z(achary) Young, English zoologist who discovered and studied the giant nerve
fibres in squids, contributing greatly to knowledge of nerve structure and function. He
also did research on the central nervous system of octopuses, demonstrating that memory
stores are located in the brain.
Frederic Calland Williams, English electrical and electronics engineer who developed
cathode-ray-tube storage devices used in many early computers. He took part in building
the first stored-program computer 1948. He was Knighted in 1976
Stanley Matthews, English footballer who played for
Stoke City, Blackpool, and England. He played nearly 700 Football League games, and won 54
international caps. He was the first Footballer of the Year in 1948 (again in 1963), the
first European Footballer of the Year in 1956, and the first footballer to be knighted for
services to the game in 1965.
Geoffrey De Havilland, British aircraft designer
who designed and whose company produced the Moth biplane, the Mosquito fighter-bomber of
World War II, and in 1949 the Comet, the world's first jet-driven airliner to enter
commercial service. Knighted in 1944.
(William) Richard Shaboe Doll, British physician who, working with Bradford Hill, provided
the first statistical proof of the link between smoking and lung cancer in 1950. - Austin
Bradford Hill, English epidemiologist and statistician. He pioneered rigorous statistical
study of patterns of disease. He was Knighted in 1961.
John (Rhodes) Cobb, British racing driver. He broke the
world land-speed record 1938, 1939, and 1947, setting a personal best time of 634.37 km/h
(394.19 mph). He attempted to break the world water-speed record on Loch Ness in Scotland
1952. On his first run he became the first person to break the 200 mph barrier on water,
averaging 332.95 km/h (206.89 mph)
Roger Gilbert Bannister, British Athlete, becomes
the first to run the Mile in under 4 minutes.
Alick Isaacs, Scottish virologist who, in 1957 discovered interferon, a naturally
occurring antiviral substance produced by cells infected with viruses. The full
implications of this discovery are still being investigated.
Frederick Sanger, English biochemist. He was the first person to win a Nobel Prize for
Chemistry twice: the first 1958 for determining the structure of insulin, and the second
1980 for work on the chemical structure of genes.
Christopher Sydney Cockerell, English engineer who
invented the hovercraft in the 1950s. He made a major contribution to aircraft radio
navigation and communications. During this period he filed 36 patents.
Vanwall, British motor-racing team and manufacturer - the first winners of the Formula 1
Constructors' World Championship.
Robin Hanbury-Tenison, Irish adventurer, explorer, and writer who made the first land
crossing of South America at its widest point in 1958.
Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer. At the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory,
Cambridge, he developed the technique of sky-mapping using `aperture synthesis┤,
combining smaller dish aerials to give the characteristics of one large one. His work on
the distribution of radio sources in the universe brought confirmation of the Big Bang
theory. He was knighted in 1966, and won, with his co-worker Antony Hewish, the Nobel
Prize for Physics 1974.
Chris (-tian John Storey) Bonington, British mountaineer. He took part in the first ascent
of Annapurna II in 1960, Nuptse in 1961, and the first British ascent of the north face of
the Eiger in 1962, climbed the central Tower of Paine in Patagonia in 1963, and was the
leader of an Everest expedition in 1975 and again in 1985, reaching the summit.
Dounreay, Site of the world's first fast-breeder nuclear reactor on the north coast of
Neil Bartlett, British chemist. He prepared the first compound of one of the inert gases,
which were previously thought to be incapable of reacting with anything.
(Michael) Anthony Epstein, English microbiologist who, in collaboration with his assistant
Barr, discovered in 1964 the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that causes glandular fever in
humans and has been linked to some forms of human cancer.
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, English biochemist who analysed the structure of
penicillin, insulin, and vitamin B12. Hodgkin was the first to use a computer to analyse
the molecular structure of complex chemicals, and this enabled her to produce
three-dimensional models. She won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1964.
Fred Trueman, English cricketer. A right-arm fast bowler of great hostility, he played for
Yorkshire 1949-68, and in 67 tests for England 1952-65. Through much of his test career he
formed a fine opening bowling partnership with Brian Statham of Lancashire. In 1964 at the
Oval, London, he gained special fame by becoming the first bowler to take 300 wickets in
Michael Penston, British astronomer at the Royal Greenwich observatory between 1965-90.
From observations made with the Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite of hot gas circulating
around the core of the galaxy NGC 4151, he concluded that a black hole of immense mass lay
at the galaxy's centre.
Harrier - The only truly successful vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing aircraft,
often called the jump jet. It was built in Britain and made its first flight in 1966. It
has a single jet engine and a set of swivelling nozzles. These deflect the jet exhaust
vertically downwards for takeoff and landing, and to the rear for normal flight. Designed
to fly from confined spaces with minimal ground support, it refuels in midair.
(Susan) Jocelyn Bell Burnell, British astronomer. She discovered the first pulsar (rapidly
flashing star) with Antony Hewish and colleagues at Cambridge University, England.
John Blashford-Snell, British explorer and soldier. His expeditions have included the
first descent and exploration of the Blue Nile 1968; the journey N to S from Alaska to
Cape Horn, crossing the Darien Gap between Panama and Colombia for the first time 1971-72;
and the first complete navigation of the Congo-Za´re River, Africa 1974-75.
Wally (Walter William) Herbert, British surveyor and explorer. His first surface crossing
by dog sledge of the Arctic Ocean 1968-69, from Alaska to Spitsbergen via the North Pole,
was the longest sustained sledging journey (6,000 km/3,800 mi) in polar exploration.
Concorde - The first and only supersonic airliner, which cruises at Mach 2, or twice the
speed of sound, about 2,170 kph/1,350 mph. Concorde, the result of Anglo-French
cooperation, made its first flight in 1969 and entered commercial service seven years
later. It is 62 m/202 ft long and has a wing span of nearly 26 m/84 ft.
Graham Hill, English motor-racing driver. He won the Dutch Grand Prix in 1962, progressing
to the world driver's title in 1962 and 1968. In 1972 he became the first Formula One
World Champion to win the Le Mans Grand Prix d'Endurance (Le Mans 24-Hour Race). He was
also the only driver to win the Formula One World Championship, Le Mans 24-Hour Race, and
the Indianapolis 500 Race in his career as a driver. His son Damon won his first Grand
Prix in 1993, making them the first father and son to both win a Grand Prix and then the
first father and son to both become World Champion.
The BBC and Independent Television in the UK introduced the world's first teletext
systems, Ceefax and Oracle, respectively.
Queen - British glam-rock group 1971-91 credited with making the first successful pop
video, for their hit `Bohemian Rhapsody'.
Patrick Christopher Steptoe, English obstetrician who pioneered in vitro fertilization.
Steptoe, together with biologist Robert Edwards, was the first to succeed in implanting in
the womb an egg fertilized outside the body. The first `test-tube baby┤ - Louise Joy
Brown, born at Oldham General Hospital, Lancashire. Robert Geoffrey Edwards, British
physiologist. In the 1950s Edwards successfully replanted mouse embryos into the uterus of
a mouse and he wondered if the same process could be applied to humans.
Ranulph Twisleton-Wykeham Fiennes, British explorer
who made the first surface journey around the world's polar circumference between 1979 and
David Hempleman-Adams, The first man in history to reach the Geographic and Magnetic North and South Poles as well as climb the highest peaks in all seven
John Lowe, English darts player. In 1986 he achieved the first televised nine-dart finish
at the MFI Championship at Reading.
Tim Berners-Lee, British physicist. Inventor of the Internet - development of the
graphical browser Mosaic was the key development that turned the Internet into a mass
Nigel Mansell, English motor-racing driver. First
man to simultaneously win the Formula 1 and Indy championships.
Genetic fingerprinting was developed in the UK by Professor Alec Jeffreys, and is now
allowed as a means of legal identification. It is used in paternity testing, forensic
medicine and inbreeding studies. The world's first national DNA database began operating
in the UK April 1995 in accordance with the 1994 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act.
Thrust SSC (`SuperSonic Car┤) goes supersonic. The Land Speed
record has been broken many times, Richard Noble's 1993 record of 1,013 kph/633 mph was
beaten by Thrust 2, driven by RAF pilot Andy Green at 1,142 kph/714 mph. But on Wednesday
15 October, Thrust SSC became the first 'car' to break the Sound Barrier setting the new
record at 1,220.354 kph/762.721 mph.