English campaigner for housing reform and public open spaces. She
cofounded the National Trust in 1894.
English philanthropist whose work to improve prison conditions is continued today by the
Howard League for Penal Reform.
On his appointment as high sheriff for Bedfordshire 1773, he undertook a tour of English
prisons which led to two acts of Parliament 1774, making jailers salaried officers and
setting standards of cleanliness. After touring Europe 1775, he published State of the
Prisons in England and Wales, with an account of some Foreign Prisons 1777. He died of
typhus fever while visiting Russian military hospitals at Kherson in the Crimea.
John Maynard Keynes
1st Baron Keynes - English economist.
His General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money 1936 proposed the
prevention of financial crises and unemployment by adjusting demand through government
control of credit and currency. He is responsible for that part of economics now known as
Keynes led the British delegation at the Bretton Woods Conference 1944, which set up the
International Monetary Fund. His theories were widely accepted in the aftermath of World
War II, and he was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century. His ideas
are today often contrasted with those of monetarism. Keynes was a fellow of King's
College, Cambridge. He worked at the Treasury during World War I, and took part in the
peace conference as chief Treasury representative, but resigned in protest against the
financial terms of the treaty. He justified his action in The Economic Consequences of the
Peace 1919. His later economic works aroused much controversy.
Florence Nightingale's parents were horrified. Their daughter had just
announced her intention to be a nurse, and nursing was among the lowest of occupations,
engaged in by the dirtiest and least-educated women.
But Florence was strong-willed, meticulous and believed God had given her a special
calling. "On February 7th, 1837," she wrote, "God spoke to me, and called
me into his service."
Despite her parents' objections, she studied nursing at Catholic and Protestant hospitals.
Then, in 1854, the horrible condition of British Army hospitals during the Crimean War
prompted the government to ask her to run the hospitals in the Crimea, located on the
north side of the Black Sea. With her emphasis on sanitation, she and her 38 nurses
brought the hospital death rate from 42 percent down to 2 percent.
Though the strain of the war had permanently damaged her health, she later founded a
nurses' school, wrote on hospital administration, petitioned the government for hospital
reforms, and served as an inspiration for the founding of the Red Cross by Jean Henri