NORTH YORKSHIREGiggleswick Schoolounty of Northeast England, created in 1974 from most of the North Riding and parts of the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire. Yorkshire - The former county was divided administratively into North, East, and West Ridings, but reorganised to form a number of new counties in 1974: the major part of Cleveland and Humberside, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, and West Yorkshire. Small outlying areas also went to Durham, Cumbria, Lancashire, and Greater Manchester. In 1996 Cleveland and Humberside were abolished, and a number of unitary authorities were created to replace them.

Local Links North Yorkshire County Council - East Riding of Yorkshire Council -City of York Council - Kingston-upon-Hull City Council - Harrogate Borough Council - Scarborough Borough Council

owns and cities Northallerton (administrative headquarters); resorts: Harrogate, Scarborough, Whitby

KnaresboroughKnaresborough, on the River Nidd, 6 km / 4 miles Northeast of Harrogate, has a diverse range of service sector and light industries, including the manufacture of circuit boards, plastic products (double glazing), stainless steel goods, hi-fi speakers, and flags and bunting.There is an outstanding railway viaduct, and the remains of a castle first established around 1070. Most of the castle ruins date from the 14th century, and there is a well-preserved dungeon. Mother Shipton's Cave

To the south of the town is a `dropping well� where the water has petrifying qualities, immersed items becoming coated with calcium carbonate. Nearby is the cave where the prophet Mother Shipton is said to have lived. St Robert's Cave, or Eugene Aram's Cave, is where the convicted murderer Eugene Aram is said to have hidden the corpse of Daniel Clark, a local shoemaker, in 1745. The chapel of Our Lady in the Crag lies near St Robert's Cave.

rea 8,037 sq. km / 3,102 sq. miles
opulation 556,200 (1995)
opography Aysgarth FallsEngland's largest county is home to the rivers, Derwent, Esk and the Ouse. North Yorkshire has a wide and varied landscape including part of the Pennines; the Vale of York (a vast plain); the Cleveland Hills; North Yorkshire Moors, which form a national park (within which is Fylingdales radar station to give early warning - 4 minutes - of nuclear attack)

North Yorkshire is divided into eight districts. The Pennines are in the west part of the county. There are several beautiful dales, which together constitute the Yorkshire Dales National Park, the principal ones being Swaledale, Wensleydale, Nidderdale, Airedale, and Ribblesdale. Whitby HarbourThe relief of the east part of the county is varied. To the Northeast are the Cleveland Hills and the valley of the River Esk, which flows to the North Sea; south of Esk lies Fylingdales Moor, the Hambleton Hills, and the North Yorkshire Moors. From these moors, several valleys, such as Bilsdale and Farndale, run down to the Vale of Pickering, through which runs the River Derwent, which flows Southwest from near the coast to join the Ouse between Selby and Goole. The county extends south of the Vale of Pickering to the Yorkshire Wolds (an area of moorland). The coast from Runswick Bay in the north to Filey Bay in the south is varied; the stretch between Whitby and Scarborough, with its high cliffs, is especially attractive.

ommerce Gorge WalkingAgriculture: cereals, dairy products (Vale of York, Pickering); wool and meat from sheep (North York Moors)
Industries: coal, footwear, clothing, vehicles, plastics, foodstuffs, high technology industries, light industry
amous people Alcuin, York was the birthplace of the conspirator Guy Fawkes, the poet W H Auden, the painter William Etty, and the sculptor John Flaxman. Dick Turpin, the highwayman, was hanged in York in 1739.

Cotter Force

York is famous for the magnificent Minster and the cobbled shopping street 'Shambles' but there are numerous other gems in this city, not least, the very pleasant walk along the city walls which give fine views of the Minster.
Burton Agnes is one of the prettiest villages in the Yorkshire Wolds and is home to the magnificent Burton Agnes Hall.
The superb natural features of Gordale Scar - a 300 foot ravine with waterfalls, Gaping Gill - the largest limestone cave in Britain and Malham Cove - a 240 foot high natural amphitheatre which water once flowed over.

Robin Hood's BayWith its pleasant coastline, National Parks, and rural landscapes, North Yorkshire is an important centre for tourism. Robin Hood's Bay between Scarborough and Whitby. It is an example of a large wave-cut platform. The village is surrounded by moorland.

In addition to the coastal resorts at Scarborough and Whitby, several smaller Staithesplaces attract tourists. Visitors come to the numerous small market towns and villages within the two National Parks, and to nearby towns, particularly Richmond, Ripon, Harrogate, and Pickering. Rievaulx Abbey; Yorkshire Dales National Park (including Swaledale, Wensleydale, and Bolton Abbey in Wharfedale); Fountains Abbey near Ripon, with Studley Royal Gardens (a World Heritage site); Castle Howard, designed by Vanbrugh, has Britain's largest collection of 18th-20th-century costume; largest accessible cavern in Britain, the Battlefield Chamber, Ingleton

HawesHawes Market town on the River Ure, 40 km / 25 miles Northwest of Skipton is a centre for fell climbing and walking, especially on the Pennine Way, and the site of a livestock market. Wensleydale cheese is made locally.

Yorkshire came under the rule of Harold of England in 1066 after the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Large areas were devastated by the Normans. Since then the county has been the scene of many battles. During the Wars of the Roses one of the bloodiest battles ever to have been fought in Britain took place at Towton Field. During the Civil War the county was divided, and the principal battle was fought at Marston Moor, where the Royalists were defeated. Important monuments in the county include the great Iron Age camp at Stanwix, and the Roman town at Aldborough. Waterfalls

Whitby AbbeyWhitby on the North Sea coast, at the mouth of the River Esk, is  a busy fishing harbour particularly herring fishing. There are remains of a 13th-century abbey. Captain James Cook served his apprenticeship in Whitby and he sailed from here on his voyage to the Pacific Ocean in 1768.
Whitby was an important whaling centre and shipbuilding town in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 664 the Synod of Whitby, which affected the course of Christianity in England, was held there. The abbey was built on the site of a Saxon foundation established in 657 by St Hilda and destroyed by the Danes in 867. A Benedictine abbey was established in 1078, and the present ruins, reached from the town by 199 steps, date from 1220. Caedmon, the earliest-known English Christian poet, worked in the abbey in the 7th century. Near the abbey ruins stands the partly Norman parish church of St Mary. Captain Cook's ship Resolution was built in Whitby, and the Captain Cook Memorial Museum commemorates the life of the explorer.

Malham CoveMalham Cove
The Craven Fault, a displacement of limestone, forms two amphitheatres of rock, Malham Cove and Gordale Scar, 2 km / 1 miles from the village of Malham. The cliffs of Malham Cove are nearly 100 m / 328 ft high; the River Aire rises at their foot.  Malham Tarn, north of the cove, is an upland lake


View from Richmond CastleAmong many castles the best known are Richmond, Bolton, Skipton, Knaresborough, and Scarborough. Middleham Castle was a residence of Warwick `The King Maker�. Of the ecclesiastical remains the most important are the Cistercian abbeys of Fountains, Rievaulx, and Jervaulx; the Augustinian priories of Bolton and Kirkham; and the Premonstratensian House at Easby. There were Benedictine foundations at Selby and Whitby.

Beverley MinsterBeverley Minster (13th century) is an outstanding example of Gothic church architecture. The town is an agricultural centre with a flourishing cattle market and bakery, and the Beverley race course. Leather tanning, shipbuilding, manufacture of car accessories, aircraft assembly, industrial plastics, and metal plating are the chief industries. St Mary's parish church in Beverley dates from the 13th century. There is an ancient grammar school in the town. The Minster contains the tomb of the Percy family (about 1350), with fine sculptures.

AskriggThe City of York is administrative headquarters of York unitary authority. It sits on the River Ouse It was the administrative headquarters of the county of North Yorkshire until 1996. Industries include tourism and the manufacture of scientific instruments, sugar, chocolate, and glass. Founded in AD 71 as the Roman provincial capital Eboracum, York retains many of its medieval streets and buildings and much of its 14th-century city wall; the Gothic York Minster, England's largest medieval cathedral, includes fine 15th-century stained glass. Kilnsey CragThe city is visited by some 3 million tourists a year. The south transept of York Minster has been restored following severe damage caused by a fire in 1984. Four gates or `bars� of the city wall survive, as well as the medieval streets including the Shambles. The Jorvik Viking Centre contains wooden remains of Viking houses. Other features include the Theatre Royal, site of a theatre since 1765; the Castle Museum; the National Railway Museum; and York University (1963).
Excavations of the Roman city have revealed the fortress, baths, and temples to Serapis and Mithras. The Roman missionary Paulinus became the first archbishop of York in 633. In 867 it became the Viking settlement of Jorvik. During the Middle Ages it was important in the wool trade. An active Quaker element in the 18th and 19th centuries included the Rowntree family, which founded a chocolate factory. In the 19th century it developed as a railway centre.
York MinsterYork Minster
It is thought that a wooden chapel was erected on the site of the present Minster in 627 for the baptism of King Edwin of Northumbria. A Norman structure was begun in about 1080, but the oldest surviving part of the present building dates from about 1220, and the central tower was completed in about 1480. The cathedral's fine stained-glass windows include the `Five Sisters� in the north transept, and the East Window dating from 1405, thought to be the world's largest medieval stained-glass window. The octagonal Chapter House, dating from 1260 to 1300, has no central supporting column. The choir screen, dating from the late 15th century, depicts kings of England from William I to Henry VI.

York also has many spectacular churches including All Saints' Church which is the only church in York to have a lantern tower. The last to be built before the Reformation, St Michael-le-Belfry (1535), has in its register an entry recording the baptism in 1570 of Guy Fawkes, the conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot. St Peter's School is one of the oldest private schools in England, and has claims to link it with the school of St Peter founded in 627. The medieval Guildhall, built in 1448, was destroyed by bombing in 1942, but was restored to its former state in 1960. Three other guildhalls remain. York Minster from the City Wall

The city walls, built on earlier foundations, extend for 4.4 km / 2.7 miles, and date mainly from the 14th century, although the gates include Norman work. The four main gateways or `bars� are Walmgate Bar, Bootham Bar, Monk Bar, and Mickelgate Bar. Walmgate retains its barbican, whilst Bootham and Monk each has its portcullis. Micklegate was the chief of the four gates and on it was impaled the head Richard of York in 1460.

The basement of the Yorkshire Museum incorporates the chapter house and fireplace of the Benedictine St Mary's Abbey (founded about 1080). In the gardens of the museum are more remains of the Abbey, including the ruins of the church (1259) and gatehouse. Clifford's TowerClifford's Tower (1245-1262) is all that remains of York Castle. It was built to replace the wooden tower built by William the Conqueror which was destroyed in 1190 when, during anti-Jewish riots in the city, 150 members of the Jewish population were put there and took their own lives by setting fire to the tower rather than fall into the hands of the mob. The network of narrow medieval streets in the centre of York includes Stonegate, and the Shambles, the street of the butchers. The Shambles includes the house of Margaret Clitherow who was martyred in 1586 after being accused of providing a refuge for Jesuit priests; the house has been restored by Catholics of York as a shrine.
The Yorkshire Museum contains fine archaeological, natural history, and geological collections. There is a richly stocked Roman gallery as well as Anglo-Saxon and Viking relics. The City Art Gallery contains a large collection of European paintings, including the Lycett Green collection of old masters, which provides a continuous series of examples of the development of European art. The Castle Museum, occupying two former prison buildings built in the Tan Hill Inn18th century, is a folk museum which includes reconstructed 19th-century streets. North Yorkshire Moors RailwayThe Jorvik Viking Centre, opened after excavations at Coppergate (1976-81), depicts life in York in the time of the Vikings and displays the archaeological remains discovered during the excavations. The National Railway Museum contains a large collection of locomotives, dating from 1829, as well as royal carriages and a replica of a section of the Channel Tunnel.

Castle HowardCastle Howard PeacockCastle Howard, Yorkshire (1699-1712), designed by John Vanbrugh with the assistance of Nicholas Hawksmoor for the Earl of Carlisle. It was the grandest country house built in England up to this time and initiated a brief flowering of a vigorous Baroque style in English architecture

Ripley Castle dates from the 16th century, but was largely rebuilt in 1780; Oliver Cromwell stayed there after the Battle of Marston Moor. Ripley has a 14th-century church.

Ripley CastleRipon cathedral, built on the site of a Saxon church, includes a crypt built by St Wilfrid in 672, and fine 15th-century misericords (ledges projecting from the underside of the hinged seat of choir stalls, for support during standing). General restoration was carried out by George Gilbert Scott in the 19th century.

Scarborough CastleSettle Market town on the River Ribble, dates from the 13th century. The surrounding limestone country has many caves and gorges, including Alum Pot, Gaping Gill, and Malham Tarn. The Settle-Carlisle railway line (182 km / 114 miles) is one of the most scenic in the UK, passing through the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the Pennines.