of north central England. First recorded in 1049 and formerly know as Northworthy,meaning
"North Enclosure" in English. It was renamed Deoraby by the Danes from the
concentration of deer; possibly in some sort of enclosure. Derby therefore means deer
village or village with a deer park or enclosure.
Derbyshire County Council - Derby City Council - Derbyshire Dales District
Council - Chesterfield
|owns and cities
||Matlock (administrative headquarters), Buxton, Chesterfield, Glossop,
Ilkeston, Long Eaton
||2,550 sq. km / 984 sq. miles
||726,000 (1995 est)
||Derbyshire is bounded on the Northwest by Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire
and South Yorkshire ; on the east by Nottinghamshire; on the Southeast by Leicestershire;
on the south by Warwickshire; and on the west by Cheshire and Staffordshire; it also
contains the City of Derby.
The southern part of the county is very fertile, the north
very rugged and mountainous. The county's many rivers, including tributaries of the rivers
Don, Mersey, and Trent, have their source in the Peak District, at the southern end of the
Pennine chain. There are springs near Buxton and Matlock, both of which were fashionable
The Peak District National Park
(including Kinder Scout 636 m / 2,088 ft)
covers much of the county and includes the rivers Dane, Derwent, Dove, Goyt, Rother,
Trent, and Wye.
heavy engineering; manufacturing (cotton, hosiery, lace, porcelain, textiles); mineral and
metal working (barytes, gypsum, lead, zinc); quarrying (marble, sandstone, pipeclay);
motor cars; limestone quarrying
Agriculture: cereals, root crops, and dairy farming (in
the south); sheep farming (in the northern hills)
||Samuel Richardson, Thomas Cook, Marquess Curzon of Kedleston; Isaak Walton
fished at Dovedale. The lexicographer Dr Samuel
Johnson was married to Mrs Elizabeth Porter at Derby in July 1735. Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern
nursing training, was the daughter of a Derbyshire gentleman and although born in Florence
she spent much of her early life at Lea Hirst, near Crich.
The city lies on the River Derwent and is the home of Rolls-Royce, Royal Crown Derby
porcelain hosts the manufacture of electrical, mining, and engineering equipment. It is
also a base for financial services. Train repair workshops are located here.
Derby was an important centre for silk and porcelain production in the eighteenth century,
and expanded rapidly in the nineteenth century as a railway engineering town and the
headquarters of the Midland Railway Company. Derby Cathedral, originally a parish church,
was rebuilt in the 18th century but retains its 16th -century tower. The University of
Derby was established in 1993.
The town was known as Northworth by the early Saxons, and it was renamed Deoraby by the
Danes who captured it in 854. When the Domesday Book was published in 1086 the town had
six churches and a population of 2,000. It was given its first market charter by Henry II
in 1154. Records show that Derby sent its first two borough members to Edward I's 23rd
parliament in 1295. Half the population of the county died during the Black Death (1349),
and the plague of 1592 caused further widespread suffering in Derby. In James I's reign
six fairs were permitted. Under a charter of Charles I in 1637, local government was
vested in a mayor, nine aldermen, and a number of burgesses, and the number of fairs
permitted was increased to seven. Derby's last charter was granted in 1682 by Charles II.
The opening of the Derby Canal in 1836 led to further industrial growth. Three years later
the railway reached Derby from Nottingham. Soon afterwards the Birmingham, Gloucester, and
Derby Junction railway was opened, and in 1841 Derby was linked by rail to Leeds. When the
separate companies were amalgamated, Derby became the headquarters of the Midland Railway
Company and developed as an important railway centre, with operational and administrative
functions as well as large locomotive, carriage, and wagon works. After 1900 industrial
expansion continued with the founding of the Rolls-Royce factory in 1908.
Derby Cathedral was originally built as All Saints' parish church, and its
16th-century tower, 64 m / 178 ft high, was the second highest parish church tower in
England (second only to Boston Stump). Only the tower of the 16th-century foundation
survived demolition in the early 18th century, being incorporated into a new church built
by Scottish architect James Gibbs. It has an unusual wrought-iron screen designed by the
local smith Robert Bakewell (d. 1752). The church became a cathedral in 1927.
Derby has many parks, the oldest being the Arboretum, given to the town in 1840 and laid
out by the Scottish landscape gardener and architect John Loudon. Other parks include
Darley Abbey (25 ha / 62 acres); Markeaton Park (80 ha / 198 acres); the Racecourse Park
(50 ha / 124 acres); and Riverside Gardens.
Dove Dale, a stunning 2 mile stretch of the River
Dove - often called 'Little Switzerland'
Derbyshire contains numerous antiquities, including the prehistoric stone circle of
Arbor Low, the most important in England after Stonehenge and Avebury. There are several
ceremonial Bronze Age sites east of the River Derwent. Other places of interest include
the ruined abbey of Dale, and the Saxon crypt at Repton.
known from Roman times for its hot springs, is now a tourist centre and a source for
bottled mineral water. The highest town in England and perfect base for exploring
the moors and dales. The Duke of Devonshire built the Crescent and Pump Rooms opposite the
town's hot springs. Join the locals and fill your own bottle with spa water from St Ann's
Well. The Roman settlement of Aquae Arnemetiae was founded there in about AD 79, the
Romans being attracted by the natural spring water supplied at a constant temperature of
28ºC / 82ºF. In the Middle Ages the town became a centre of pilgrimage, and Mary Queen
of Scots was treated for rheumatism at the spa. In the 1780s, under the guidance of the
5th Duke of Devonshire, the Crescent and other buildings were built, modelled on the
architecture of the fashionable spa town of Bath. At about 300 m / 984 ft above sea
level, Buxton is the highest town of its size in England. It has a restored Edwardian
opera house, and the Buxton Festival is held annually. The Devonshire Royal Hospital,
opened in 1859, was originally an 18th-century stables; its wide dome is 48 m / 156 ft in
7 km / 4 miles west of Chesterfield, was commenced by William Cavendish (1505-57) and
completed by his widow, Bess of Hardwick (1518-1608). It was gradually rebuilt in
classical style by William, 1st Duke of Devonshire (1640-1707), from 1688 to 1707, who
employed William Talman as his first architect, and later Thomas Archer who added the
curved north front. The courtyard plan of the Elizabethan house was retained, but the 6th
duke added a long wing, under Jeffrey Wyatville (from 1820). Chatsworth is the seat of the
dukes of Devonshire. The house contains one of the world's finest collection of drawings,
as well as outstanding picture and book collections. Joseph Paxton was gardener here, and
some of his work remains. It was there that Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned under the
care of the Earl of Shrewsbury.
on the River Wye, 25 miles from Derby is in the scenic surroundings of the Peak District.
A busy cattle market town and largest of the Peak District National Park, with a beautiful
12th-century church and fine five-arched medieval bridge. Nearby are the historic stately
homes Haddon Hall and Chatsworth House. There are Saxon remains on Castle Hill near
Bakewell. The church of All Saints is mentioned in the Domesday Book; on its southern side
stands an 8th-century carved stone cross. Bakewell Bridge is one of the oldest bridges in
England. Lead mining was practised from early times, and chert limestone is still worked.
There are several 17th-century buildings, including the grammar school dating from 1636. A
visit to Derbyshire has to include a visit to Bakewell, where the original Bakewell Pudding is a million times better than
the commercially produced Bakewell Tart.
Arkwright opened the world's first water-powered cotton spinning mill on the banks of the
River Derwent at Cromford, near Matlock, in 1771. Cresswell Crags (in the
Northeast of the county) is one of the earliest known human settlements in the British
Isles. In 1665-66 the bubonic plague killed 80% of the inhabitants of Eyam.
Haddon Hall; Hardwick Hall; Kedleston Hall well-dressing at Tissington and other
16 miles west of Sheffield is situated at the foot of a hill, on the summit of which
stands Peak Castle, originally built by William Peveril on land granted to him by William
the Conqueror in 1068. The keep was built by Henry II in 1176. Today the castle is managed
by English Heritage.
features in Walter Scott's novel Peveril of the Peak.
The area around the village contains the Peak, Speedwell, and Treak Cliff Caverns, as
well as the Blue John Cavern, which is known for its coloured fluorspar. This is the
biggest range of caverns in Britain and is well worth a visit.
Speedwell Cavern, a 200 year
old lead mine, is entered from a small building at the base of Winnats Pass
- owned by the National trust. 105 steps down into the cavern brings you to a landing
stage of an underground canal where you board a boat for a tour of the caverns.
Gateway to Dove Dale and looking much as Charles I saw it when he attended a service in
the church here with its 215-foot spire after defeat at Naseby in 1645. The recipe for a
distinctive local gingerbread is said to have come from French prisoners billeted here
during the Napoleonic Wars and has been passed down from Ashbourne baker to baker ever
since. Nice with Ashbourne water!
Centre for the county's coal and iron, but best known for its 238-foot twisted spire on
top of All Saints' Church which is nearly 8 feet out of true and is visible for many miles
scenery a River Derwent spa town with a great hydro centre built during the 19th century
at Matlock Bank. Nearby Hall Leys Gardens stretch along the river. Matlock runs into
Matlock Bath, which is a popular destination for Motor Cyclists and tourists alike. The
Derwent winds its way through an impressive gorge which is popular with rock climbers and
The Heights of Abraham can be walked or
reached by bubble lift.
Bolsover Castle, Bolsover.
Calke Abby, Ticknall.
Carnfield Hall, South Normanton.
Catton Hall, Swadlincote.
Elvaston Castle Country Park, Derby.
Hardwick Estate - Stainsby Mill, Stainsby, Chesterfield.
Hardwick Old Hall, Chesterfield.
Kedleston Hall, Derby.
Melbourne Hall, Melbourne.