Derbyshire

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DERBYSHIRERiber Castleounty of north central England. First recorded in 1049 and formerly know as Northworthy,meaning "North Enclosure" in English. It was renamed Deoraby by the Danes from the concentration of deer; possibly in some sort of enclosure. Derby therefore means deer village or village with a deer park or enclosure.

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Local Links Derbyshire County Council - Derby City Council - Derbyshire Dales District Council - Chesterfield Borough Council

owns and cities Matlock (administrative headquarters), Buxton, Chesterfield, Glossop, Ilkeston, Long Eaton
rea 2,550 sq. km / 984 sq. miles
opulation 726,000 (1995 est)
opography

Kinder Scout

River Wye at Miller's DaleDerbyshire is bounded on the Northwest by Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire ; on the east by Nottinghamshire; on the Southeast by Leicestershire; on the south by Warwickshire; and on the west by Cheshire and Staffordshire; it also contains the City of Derby.

The southern part of the county is very fertile, the north very rugged and mountainous. The county's many rivers, including tributaries of the rivers Don, Mersey, and Trent, have their source in the Peak District, at the southern end of the Pennine chain. There are springs near Buxton and Matlock, both of which were fashionable spa towns.

Back to top The Peak District National Park (including Kinder Scout 636 m / 2,088 ft) covers much of the county and includes the rivers Dane, Derwent, Dove, Goyt, Rother, Trent, and Wye.

ommerce Ladybower ResevoirIndustries: heavy engineering; manufacturing (cotton, hosiery, lace, porcelain, textiles); mineral and metal working (barytes, gypsum, lead, zinc); quarrying (marble, sandstone, pipeclay); motor cars; limestone quarrying

Agriculture: cereals, root crops, and dairy farming (in the south); sheep farming (in the northern hills)

amous people Samuel Richardson, Thomas Cook, Marquess Curzon of Kedleston; Isaak Walton fished at Dovedale. The lexicographer Dr Samuel Johnson was married to Mrs Elizabeth Porter at Derby in July 1735. Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing training, was the daughter of a Derbyshire gentleman and although born in Florence she spent much of her early life at Lea Hirst, near Crich.
ttractions

Thors Cave

Monsal Head

Derby
Chee Dale The city lies on the River Derwent and is the home of Rolls-Royce, Royal Crown Derby porcelain hosts the manufacture of electrical, mining, and engineering equipment. It is also a base for financial services. Train repair workshops are located here.
Derby was an important centre for silk and porcelain production in the eighteenth century, and expanded rapidly in the nineteenth century as a railway engineering town and the headquarters of the Midland Railway Company. Derby Cathedral, originally a parish church, was rebuilt in the 18th century but retains its 16th -century tower. The University of Derby was established in 1993.
The town was known as Northworth by the early Saxons, and it was renamed Deoraby by the Danes who captured it in 854. When the Domesday Book was published in 1086 the town had six churches and a population of 2,000. It was given its first market charter by Henry II in 1154. Records show that Derby sent its first two borough members to Edward I's 23rd parliament in 1295. Half the population of the county died during the Black Death (1349), and the plague of 1592 caused further widespread suffering in Derby. In James I's reign six fairs were permitted. Under a charter of Charles I in 1637, local government was vested in a mayor, nine aldermen, and a number of burgesses, and the number of fairs permitted was increased to seven. Derby's last charter was granted in 1682 by Charles II.
The opening of the Derby Canal in 1836 led to further industrial growth. Three years later the railway reached Derby from Nottingham. Soon afterwards the Birmingham, Gloucester, and Derby Junction railway was opened, and in 1841 Derby was linked by rail to Leeds. When the separate companies were amalgamated, Derby became the headquarters of the Midland Railway Company and developed as an important railway centre, with operational and administrative functions as well as large locomotive, carriage, and wagon works. After 1900 industrial expansion continued with the founding of the Rolls-Royce factory in 1908.
Carsington WaterDerby Cathedral was originally built as All Saints' parish church, and its 16th-century tower, 64 m / 178 ft high, was the second highest parish church tower in England (second only to Boston Stump). Only the tower of the 16th-century foundation survived demolition in the early 18th century, being incorporated into a new church built by Scottish architect James Gibbs. It has an unusual wrought-iron screen designed by the local smith Robert Bakewell (d. 1752). The church became a cathedral in 1927.
Derby has many parks, the oldest being the Arboretum, given to the town in 1840 and laid out by the Scottish landscape gardener and architect John Loudon. Other parks include Darley Abbey (25 ha / 62 acres); Markeaton Park (80 ha / 198 acres); the Racecourse Park (50 ha / 124 acres); and Riverside Gardens.

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DovedaleDove Dale, a stunning 2 mile stretch of the River Dove - often called 'Little Switzerland'

Derbyshire contains numerous antiquities, including the prehistoric stone circle of Arbor Low, the most important in England after Stonehenge and Avebury. There are several ceremonial Bronze Age sites east of the River Derwent. Other places of interest include the ruined abbey of Dale, and the Saxon crypt at Repton.

Devonshire Hospital, BuxtonBuxton CrescentBuxton, known from Roman times for its hot springs, is now a tourist centre and a source for bottled mineral water.   The highest town in England and perfect base for exploring the moors and dales. The Duke of Devonshire built the Crescent and Pump Rooms opposite the town's hot springs. Join the locals and fill your own bottle with spa water from St Ann's Well. The Roman settlement of Aquae Arnemetiae was founded there in about AD 79, the Romans being attracted by the natural spring water supplied at a constant temperature of 28C / 82F. In the Middle Ages the town became a centre of pilgrimage, and Mary Queen of Scots was treated for rheumatism at the spa. In the 1780s, under the guidance of the 5th Duke of Devonshire, the Crescent  and other buildings were built, modelled on the architecture of the fashionable spa town of Bath.  At about 300 m / 984 ft above sea level, Buxton is the highest town of its size in England. It has a restored Edwardian opera house, and the Buxton Festival is held annually. The Devonshire Royal Hospital, opened in 1859, was originally an 18th-century stables; its wide dome is 48 m / 156 ft in diameter.

Chatsworth HouseChatsworth House 7 km / 4 miles west of Chesterfield, was commenced by William Cavendish (1505-57) and completed by his widow, Bess of Hardwick (1518-1608). It was gradually rebuilt in classical style by William, 1st Duke of Devonshire (1640-1707), from 1688 to 1707, who employed William Talman as his first architect, and later Thomas Archer who added the curved north front. The courtyard plan of the Elizabethan house was retained, but the 6th duke added a long wing, under Jeffrey Wyatville (from 1820). Chatsworth is the seat of the dukes of Devonshire. The house contains one of the world's finest collection of drawings, as well as outstanding picture and book collections. Joseph Paxton was gardener here, and some of his work remains. It was there that Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned under the care of the Earl of Shrewsbury.
Crich Tramway MuseumBakewell, on the River Wye, 25 miles from Derby is in the scenic surroundings of the Peak District. A busy cattle market town and largest of the Peak District National Park, with a beautiful 12th-century church and fine five-arched medieval bridge. Nearby are the historic stately homes Haddon Hall and Chatsworth House. There are Saxon remains on Castle Hill near Bakewell. The church of All Saints is mentioned in the Domesday Book; on its southern side stands an 8th-century carved stone cross. Bakewell Bridge is one of the oldest bridges in England. Lead mining was practised from early times, and chert limestone is still worked. There are several 17th-century buildings, including the grammar school dating from 1636. A visit to Derbyshire has to include a visit to Bakewell, where the original Bakewell Pudding is a million times better than the commercially produced Bakewell Tart.
Cromford Wharf ShedBack to top Arkwright opened the world's first water-powered cotton spinning mill on the banks of the River Derwent at Cromford, near Matlock, in 1771. Cresswell Crags (in the Northeast of the county) is one of the earliest known human settlements in the British Isles. In 1665-66 the bubonic plague killed 80% of the inhabitants of Eyam.

Haddon Hall; Hardwick Hall; Kedleston Hall well-dressing at Tissington and other villages

CastletonCastleton, 16 miles west of Sheffield is situated at the foot of a hill, on the summit of which stands Peak Castle, originally built by William Peveril on land granted to him by William the Conqueror in 1068. The keep was built by Henry II in 1176. Today the castle is managed by English Heritage.


Speedwell CavernPeak Castle features in Walter Scott's novel Peveril of the Peak.

The area around the village contains the Peak, Speedwell, and Treak Cliff Caverns, as well as the Blue John Cavern, which is known for its coloured fluorspar. This is the biggest range of caverns in Britain and is well worth a visit.

Halfway House Passing PlaceSpeedwell Cavern, a 200 year old lead mine, is entered from a small building at the base of Winnats PassWinnats Pass - owned by the National trust. 105 steps down into the cavern brings you to a landing stage of an underground canal where you board a boat for a tour of the caverns.

Ashbourne
Gateway to Dove Dale and looking much as Charles I saw it when he attended a service in the church here with its 215-foot spire after defeat at Naseby in 1645. The recipe for a distinctive local gingerbread is said to have come from French prisoners billeted here during the Napoleonic Wars and has been passed down from Ashbourne baker to baker ever since. Nice with Ashbourne water!

Chesterfield
Centre for the county's coal and iron, but best known for its 238-foot twisted spire on top of All Saints' Church which is nearly 8 feet out of true and is visible for many miles around.

Matlock
Heights of AbrahamAmidst romantic scenery a River Derwent spa town with a great hydro centre built during the 19th century at Matlock Bank. Nearby Hall Leys Gardens stretch along the river. Matlock runs into Matlock Bath, which is a popular destination for Motor Cyclists and tourists alike. The Derwent winds its way through an impressive gorge which is popular with rock climbers and The Heights of Abraham can be walked or reached by bubble lift.

Bolsover Castle, Bolsover.

Calke Abby, Ticknall.

Carnfield Hall, South Normanton.

Catton Hall, Swadlincote.

Elvaston Castle Country Park, Derby.

Hardwick Estate - Stainsby Mill, Stainsby, Chesterfield.

Hardwick Old Hall, Chesterfield.

Kedleston Hall, Derby.

Melbourne Hall, Melbourne.